Qorong'i

The Longest-Running Evolution Experiment 

Ko‘rishlar soni 3.6 mln
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If you ran evolution all over again, would you get humans? How repeatable is ? This video is sponsored by @BountyBrand.

Special thanks to Prof. Richard Lenski and team for showing me around the lab - it is an honor to be able to witness and document such a historic science experiment.
Thanks to Dr Zachary Blount for the help with research and setting up the competition time-lapse, Dr Nkrumah Grant for microscope images of the long-term line cells @NkrumahGrant
Devin Lake, Kate Bellgowan, and Dr. Minako Izutsu for being part of this video. Long Live the LTEE!

LTEE website - myxo.css.msu.edu/ecoli/index.html
Intro footage courtesy of the Kishony Lab - kishony.technion.ac.il
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References:
Lenski, R. E., & Travisano, M. (1994). Dynamics of adaptation and diversification: a 10,000-generation experiment with bacterial populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91(15), 6808-6814. - ve42.co/Lenski1994

Lenski, R. E., Rose, M. R., Simpson, S. C., & Tadler, S. C. (1991). Long-term experimental evolution in Escherichia coli. I. Adaptation and divergence during 2,000 generations. The American Naturalist, 138(6), 1315-1341. - ve42.co/Lenski1991

Good, B. H., McDonald, M. J., Barrick, J. E., Lenski, R. E., & Desai, M. M. (2017). The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations. Nature, 551(7678), 45-50. - ve42.co/Good2017

Blount, Z. D., Borland, C. Z., & Lenski, R. E. (2008). Historical contingency and the evolution of a key innovation in an experimental population of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(23), 7899-7906. - ve42.co/Blount2008

Blount, Z. D., Lenski, R. E., & Losos, J. B. (2018). Contingency and determinism in evolution: Replaying life’s tape. Science, 362(6415). - ve42.co/Blount2018

Wiser, M. J., Ribeck, N., & Lenski, R. E. (2013). Long-term dynamics of adaptation in asexual populations. Science, 342(6164), 1364-1367. - ve42.co/Wiser2013

N, Scharping. (2019). How a 30-Year Experiment Has Fundamentally Changed Our View of How Evolution Works. Discover - ve42.co/Scharping

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Special thanks to Patreon supporters: Mike Tung, Evgeny Skvortsov, Meekay, Ismail Öncü Usta, Paul Peijzel, Crated Comments, Anna, Mac Malkawi, Michael Schneider, Oleksii Leonov, Jim Osmun, Tyson McDowell, Ludovic Robillard, Jim buckmaster, fanime96, Juan Benet, Ruslan Khroma, Robert Blum, Richard Sundvall, Lee Redden, Vincent, Marinus Kuivenhoven, Alfred Wallace, Arjun Chakroborty, Joar Wandborg, Clayton Greenwell, Pindex, Michael Krugman, Cy 'kkm' K'Nelson, Sam Lutfi, Ron Neal

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Research and Writing by by Derek Muller, Petr Lebedev and Casey Rentz
Animation by Iván Tello
Filmed by Derek Muller, Emily Zhang and Raquel Nuno
Edited by Derek Muller
Music by Jonny Hyman and from Epidemic Sound epidemicsound.com
Additional video supplied by Getty Images
Thumbnail image courtesy of the Kishony Lab
Produced by Casey Rentz
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Joylandi

 

16-Iyn, 2021

Ulashish:

:

Yuklab olish:

Yuklanmoqda.....

Saqlab olish:

Mening pleylistlarim
Keyinroq ko‘rish
Fikrlar 21 548   
karen hotcheeks
karen hotcheeks 31 daqiqa oldin
The righteous minibus enzymatically return because beetle unsurprisingly file outside a shaky fat. holistic, angry humidity
Caitlyn Foster
Caitlyn Foster 2 soat oldin
Technically this is adaption, not evolution: the bacteria is adapting to be able to survive the poison, not turning into something other than the bacteria it was at the start. At the beginning and end, it’s still the same kind of bacteria, just with the ability to endure the greater concentration. Not true evolution.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 35 daqiqa oldin
"Technically this is adaption, not evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "turning into something other than the bacteria" Turning into something other than bacteria would disprove evolution. Asking as evidence for evolution something that would disprove evolution only serves to underline your ignorance of the subject. "it’s still the same kind of bacteria" 'Kind' is a nonsense word without any scientific validity.
binslagala
binslagala 3 soat oldin
Shouldn't they wear gloves? :D Awesome video !
Rasmus Odgaard
Rasmus Odgaard 3 soat oldin
So 42 is the universe...and everything?
JR HsN.2
JR HsN.2 4 soat oldin
Hello Monkey guys 😂
delta444
delta444 4 soat oldin
I love science ❤ It's like being a part in the evolution of knowledge
Jim Harris
Jim Harris 5 soat oldin
So it metabolizes citrate? yes. But it's still E coli? You confirmed it? yes. Okay. Let me know when it doesn't pass an E coli identity test.
Sadique Khan
Sadique Khan 9 soat oldin
So when it will start speaking?
Haz
Haz 10 soat oldin
Please make sure you close that lab door tightly we don’t want new stuff coming out from labs 🧫
JC Wood
JC Wood 10 soat oldin
Replace the word evolution with adaptation please. Because science. Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 10 soat oldin
"Replace the word evolution with adaptation please." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. " Evolution implies information being ADDED to the genome. Please show evidence of this." Every insertion and duplication mutation adds information by definition. The Ara-3 strain discussed in this video has such a mutation, as demonstrated by sequencing.
Equilibrium
Equilibrium 16 soat oldin
Can someone help me understand? Because it doesn't make sense to me.
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
@Equilibrium ok, i'll try to remember to do it tomorrow, but my brain is turning off.
Equilibrium
Equilibrium 15 soat oldin
@zhou sei The video is long, full of information that I couldn't retain quite as good although watching it over and over. So i guess the whole thing, but you can give me a quick summary
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
observe e coli, new proteins pop up... some are helpful, others not so much. or what part was difficult, i don't wanna limit anything here...
Steven Schupak
Steven Schupak 19 soat oldin
It'll be an experiment in evolution when one of the cultures becomes a duck and waddles away. Until then is an experiment in adaptation.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 37 daqiqa oldin
@Steven Schupak "let's walk back a step or two where "thing a" split into the thig that "can" be a bacteria and the thing thats an academically acceptable precursor to "duck"" 'A' (LUCA) split into 'B' (bacteria) and 'C' (LEACA). 'C' split into 'D' (archaea) and 'E' (eukaryotes). 'E' split into [several dozen steps omitted] 'Y' (birds), 'Y' split into 'Z' (ducks). Sound good? "You'd have to agree that "thing a" had both potentials." Sure... "Why is it then incomprehensible to postulate that the bacteria then by its nature having all the same possible extentions as "thing a" has? Why can't bacteria become a duck?" Does the fact that you and your brother have the same father mean that you can be your brother's father, or does it mean it is impossible for you to be your brother's father? When you understand why it is the latter, you will understand why it is impossible for ducks to descend from bacteria.
Steven Schupak
Steven Schupak 2 soat oldin
@Crispr CAS9 let's walk back a step or two where "thing a" split into the thig that "can" be a bacteria and the thing thats an academically acceptable precursor to "duck". You'd have to agree that "thing a" had both potentials. So it could have become a bacterial precursor and a duck precursor and inevitably a precursor to any given design that we know to be or have been. Why is it then incomprehensible to postulate that the bacteria then by its nature having all the same possible extentions as "thing a" has? Why can't bacteria become a duck? It's not outside of the potential of an evolutionary based achitype or model for one thing to have many if not Infinite possibility of more advanced outcome... Baring the fact that there isn't enough time and the likelihood of it being anything more than a bacteria forever is basically zero.. what law of evolution do you acert to draw a hard line between anything? if it's all from the same thing. It's inherently capable of infinite possible outcomes. "Laws of evolution" isn't a thing. It's a assumptive and postulatory theory. We don't have all the answers. Just possibilities that under examination are "probably" false, as in it has infinite inprobability. The odds of it becoming anything other than extinct are all but absolute zero ♾
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 4 soat oldin
​@Steven Schupak ""Thing A" indeed became a duck." But 'Thing A' was not, and could not have been, a bacteria. Because that's not how things work. Let's try this: Tell me where you draw the line: All ducks, all birds, all reptiles, all amniotes, all tetrapods, all vertebrates, all metazoans. Where do you say common ancestry is untenable, and we can start there. Otherwise, as I've said, you're just being dishonest.
Steven Schupak
Steven Schupak 5 soat oldin
@Crispr CAS9 Your heads too full. Your taking it to literally friend. Can you draw a single line from the first ever thing (call it whatever you want) to a more complex thing (call it whatever you want) you want to play in incrementals and time but in fact from "life form a" to "life form b" is indeed the general principle. Your busy in the minutia and missing the point. "Thing A" indeed became a duck. You need no fancy theoritics to garner proof. I can show you a duck first hand. It happend. The question is was it ever "thing a". And if so where did "thing a" come from? You say "thing a" came from nothing accidently and became "thing b" over the course of a preposterous amount of time with a preposterous amout of sheer luck.. I find the idea preposterous. The sheer complexity and the amout information within "thing A" is not probable, infact its neer impossible mathimaticly let alone the complexity in "thing b" which is infinitely more advanced (a duck). DNA is information, its code. I challenge you to find a software engineer who will agree incredibly advanced codes sometime accidently write themselves or could ever do such a thing. The odds of a coherent sentence being produced with a random set of letters being mixed at random become astronomical in just a few words. There isn't enough time in the propsed history of the universe for nothing to become information to become a duck. 🦆... every where you have to place a "probably" in evolution the solution when examined is "probably not"
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 5 soat oldin
@Steven Schupak "you have to go back even further." To demonstrate the common ancestry of any two individuals, one only needs to go back to the most recent common ancestor of those individuals. For animals, as an example, only requires you go back ~800 million years, ~3.2 billion years after life started. If you reject the common ancestry of all metazoans, then arguing about abiogenesis is simply dishonest. If you're okay with the common ancestry of all metazoans... fine. "So from bacteria to duck is indeed possible through evolution" No it isn't, because you can't get eukaryotes from bacteria, that's nonsense. "if it's not then maybe your theory sucks" The theory being incompatible with things that are neither observed nor required is not a weakness of the theory, but it does underline your misunderstanding of the theory.
Michael
Michael 19 soat oldin
This is really cool, but let's all hope those hyper mutant e coli don't accidentally get released into the wild from that building being destroyed by a natural disaster or something.
Luciano Stabel
Luciano Stabel 20 soat oldin
I read about this experiment on Dawkin's The Greatest Show On Earth book. This experiment is astonishingly great. Your video doesn't fall behind, great content. Thank you so much for that.
Islam Mokhtar
Islam Mokhtar 21 soat oldin
Can you make a relativity-based explanation of the tides in oceans?!
Crypto Secutiry
Crypto Secutiry 22 soat oldin
The fresh ping preoperatively suck because speedboat routinely squeal through a erratic judge. chubby, scattered attraction
Beaman Surchit
Beaman Surchit 22 soat oldin
How are you defining evolution? You have here demonstrated micro-evolution - evolution within a species: bacteria in and bacteria out. No one has a problem believing there is micro-evolution going on, which creates changes within a species. Sometimes these changes - mutations - are advantageous: longer beaks; stronger muscles; ability to live in a changing environment, such as one that has had antibiotics added to it. Mutation has NEVER added new DNA information, which would be essential for interspecies evolution to occur.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 12 soat oldin
@Beaman Surchit "How many generations of changing alleles are required for a bacteria to become ... not bacteria - a new species?" It is a new species when people decide it is, but that decision is correlated to the extent of divergence. In bacteria, the delimitation is usually by ecotype (by which Ara-3 should already be a different species) or 3% 16S divergence (by which it should be a new species in another few million generations). But at no point would the descendants of bacteria not be bacteria, because bacteria is a clade, and descendants are always in all of the clades their ancestors were in. "Isn't the whole point of the theory to suggest the "evolution" of slime into ... eventually ... homo sapiens?" Thinking that getting humans is the 'point' of evolution is a radical misunderstanding of the theory. Evolution explains the origins of humans, it doesn't require it. " but eventually it has to get there - eventually you MUST have interspecies evolution." Given sufficient accumulation of divergence, you can get extremely modified descendants, which would result in labeling the new population as a different species from the ancestral population. Experimental speciation is well documented and extremely repeatable. "We each could of course throw our own "experts" at the many issues" Casey Luskin is not an expert in any relevant field, EvolutionNews is a crank website, and nonetheless the linked article *still* manages to confirm that you can get new information from mutations. And if mutations can produce new information, as we must now agree they can, and if some fraction of those mutations are beneficial, as is necessarily true, then I'm not sure what you think the problem is. In terms of producing complex features by mutation, you can look at the development of placental viviparity in lizards, happening in real time in the wild. "If evolutionary theory is correct, transitional forms of life should be literally all around us" The preservation of transitional forms is a question of geology and historical contingency, not biology. Nonetheless, we have excellent fossil sequences for most major transitions of the past 500 million years. And by the way, Darwin went on to say: "On the absence or rarity of transitional varieties. As natural selection acts solely by the preservation of profitable modifications, each new form will tend in a fully-stocked country to take the place of, and finally to exterminate, its own less improved parent or other less-favoured forms with which it comes into competition. Thus extinction and natural selection will, as we have seen, go hand in hand. Hence, if we look at each species as descended from some other unknown form, both the parent and all the transitional varieties will generally have been exterminated by the very process of formation and perfection of the new form." "We should be able to "read" evolution from nature just as easily as from a book." Much like understand a book is only easy if you understand the language, understanding evolution is only easy if you understand the underlying chemistry and statistics. At which point, evolution is unmistakable.
Beaman Surchit
Beaman Surchit 13 soat oldin
@zhou sei I wasn't even remotely making such a ludicrous suggestion. edit: I should have added: Ham doesn't either. If you have actually listened to Ham's arguments you were either listening very carelessly; or your comments here are disingenuous at best.
Beaman Surchit
Beaman Surchit 14 soat oldin
​@Crispr CAS9 "Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations." How many generations of changing alleles are required for a bacteria to become ... not bacteria - a new species? "If we saw something other than bacteria evolve from bacteria, it would disprove evolution." Pardon me? Isn't the whole point of the theory to suggest the "evolution" of slime into ... eventually ... homo sapiens? I know you're not saying that a bacteria suddenly evolves into a mouse (for example) but eventually it has to get there - eventually you MUST have interspecies evolution. "Every duplication and insertion mutation adds information by definition." We each could of course throw our own "experts" at the many issues and problems raised by the theory of evolution, but that would never smooth out our differences. Allow me go there just once and suggest you take a look, from my perspective, at "Can Random Mutations Create New Complex Features? A Response to TalkOrigins". [ evolutionnews (dot) org/2012/06/can_random_muta/ ] This website looks at the science. For me, what it boils down to is obvious observational logic. As Darwin himself questioned: “Why, if species have descended from other species by insensibly fine gradations, do we not everywhere see innumerable transitional forms.” Exactly. If evolutionary theory is correct, transitional forms of life should be literally all around us. We should be able to "read" evolution from nature just as easily as from a book. But we can't - it simply isn't there. And it's not in the fossil record either.
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
(assumption) you've fallen victim to ken ham and the whole "change in type" nonsense. you don't see a fish suddenly give birth to a monkey, that's not how evolution works.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 22 soat oldin
"How are you defining evolution?" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations. "bacteria in and bacteria out." If we saw something other than bacteria evolve from bacteria, it would disprove evolution. Expecting as evidence for a thing something that would disprove that thing does nothing but underline the fact you don't understand the subject. "Mutation has NEVER added new DNA information" Every duplication and insertion mutation adds information by definition. "which would be essential for interspecies evolution" The known effects of mutations, including those you listed earlier, are sufficient to explain the entire diversity of life on earth.
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
what's your point?
OgrAdaY
OgrAdaY Kun oldin
Would this be considered gain of function if the e.coli develop a competitive advantage?
Lorenzo
Lorenzo Kun oldin
Finally we understand why 42 is the answer
Teflon Pan
Teflon Pan Kun oldin
I am not watching Evolution in action. Because bacteria turns resistance against enemies, does not prove a fish turning into a human over billions of years. You just take one truth and stretch it over billions of years. That's not how science works.
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
this one particular experiment doesn't prove that we have a fish as a common ancestor, but it is one small experiment in the grand compendium of observations, confirmed predictions, and handshakes across the aisle between sciences that aren't normally associated with eachother. you have to take the whole, you can't point to one small part of a theory and be like "see? this doesn't prove common descent". well, put it in the bag with whale bones, endogenous retroviruses, and the geological record as it pertains to fossil finds... the picture starts to look pretty complete.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Kun oldin
"I am not watching Evolution in action" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.
ukranaut
ukranaut Kun oldin
It's not gonna end well.
21trips
21trips Kun oldin
All those generations and none of them have have grown even as big as an ant? Great evidence against evolution between kinds of living creatures.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 22 soat oldin
@mellowfellow14 "It took over 3 BILLION years of evolution, excnction, changes climates ect to give rise to modern man" about 4 billion, actually.
mellowfellow14
mellowfellow14 23 soat oldin
@21trips No and you never will, because that isn't evolution through natural selection works; again you show you have no understanding of it. Speciation is a gradual process, it takes thousands if not millions of years, hence you will never see a ''fish becoming a dog'' or any other creationist nonsense. It took over 3 BILLION years of evolution, excnction, changes climates ect to give rise to modern man, yet you are expecting a bacteria to ''evolve into a lizard'' in a few decades? Nonsense.
21trips
21trips Kun oldin
@mellowfellow14 Natural selection works really well within a kind of living creatures but you have never seen one kind of living creature turn into another kind of living creature from natural selection like from bacteria to a lizard or fish or insect, have you?
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Kun oldin
" Great evidence against evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "between kinds of living creatures." Kinds is a nonsense word without scientific validity, and evolution prohibits one extant life producing another extant life form. Asking as evidence for a thing something that would disprove that thing does nothing but underline your ignorance of the subject.
mellowfellow14
mellowfellow14 Kun oldin
How to show everyone you have no understanding of evolution through natural selection in 1 sentence.
JD
JD Kun oldin
That commercial at the end just wiped out my following.
Oren Bartal
Oren Bartal Kun oldin
Finally we know what 42 really means - It's the number of days it takes e.coli to expand enough to fill the entire observable universe
Not Rian's Luke
Not Rian's Luke Kun oldin
30 seconds into the video, and all I can think is: "Okay, but is it a good idea to forcibly evolve e-coli bacteria into being resistant to antibiotics?"
James Rodwell
James Rodwell Kun oldin
The bad computer universally pinch because parade rheologically injure as a freezing shorts. quiet, splendid heart
Tungkung Langit
Tungkung Langit Kun oldin
Generation 999k: The bacteria started behaving like nanobots.
Urban Explorer
Urban Explorer Kun oldin
I have a doubt, have they ever checked for a bacteria that could survive the autoclave?? I mean there could be a bacteria that might have mutated so much that it might have gained ability to survive the autoclave.....
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
some spores can, but i wonder if a tardigrade might?
Vorpal Inferno
Vorpal Inferno Kun oldin
Grow bacteria that eat plastic.
Vorpal Inferno
Vorpal Inferno Kun oldin
Imagine doing this to humans. Welcome to grimdark.
Illyasviel von Einzbern
Did you ask the professor how lethal those E.Coli bacteria are if they were to infect a human?
Samu Salla
Samu Salla Kun oldin
how come no one is talking about how beautiful that lab is
Michael Chen
Michael Chen Kun oldin
Just curious, is there any risk of the super-evolved E. Coli infecting the scientists?
Purvang Vasani
Purvang Vasani 2 kun oldin
Can we please get a video on lucid dreaming?
Scott Kidder
Scott Kidder 2 kun oldin
Wait, but evolution wouldn’t really happen if you didn’t have the selective pressure of competing with other bacteria for resources. I mean it would, the bacteria would still have mutations, but as long as the those mutations weren’t fatal, the colonies would simply randomly generate new versions but none of them would be selected for. In other words, there wouldn’t really be any “improvement” because there wouldn’t be any need to. What would they be improving at? I guess what I’m saying is that your environment is changing and it’s hard to imagine one in which nothing changed. Even in lab conditions, there’s still selective pressure. And as the colony grows, that pressure increases. So evolution is happening in the colonies not in spite of there being no environmental change in the lab, but because of it. Or are you saying that the environmental change is relatively small in the lab compared to the “wild.” And therefore, we’d expect to see a higher rate of evolutionary adaption in the wild than we would expect in the lab? Or were you saying that even in a static environment, there’s always a way to become better adapted to it, there is no perfect way to be adapted? It seems to me, nature would find the top best ways to be adapted and they would probably be different. But I also ask the question, is it even possible to keep the environment static and unchanging? And environment with 10 million bacteria in the same media is very different than an environment with 10. Even an environment with 11 bacteria is different than one with 10. So how could you effectively keep the environment the same? Or am I just missing the point? Lol
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Kun oldin
"Or were you saying that even in a static environment, there’s always a way to become better adapted to it, there is no perfect way to be adapted?" This one, I believe.
Elu Herrahaz
Elu Herrahaz 2 kun oldin
But why does it stay coli and doesn't evolve into a new species of bacteria?
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 12 soat oldin
@zhou sei You can use reproductive viability as a metric for species delimitation, but it is extremely problematic. Two populations might be completely interfertile, but never mate in the wild. Or consider ring species fertility.
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
@Crispr CAS9 in organisms with sexual reproduction, don't we just call it a new species once they cannot mate to produce viable offspring?
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 Kun oldin
" evolve into a new species of bacteria?" At the point people determine these differences sufficient to label the populations as separate species, it will be. Species is a human concept, and a human label. By an ecotype conception of microbial species, the Ara-3 strain should already be classified as a separate species. By a more conventional delimitation, not until the populations reach a 3% 16S divergence.
PoM MoM
PoM MoM 2 kun oldin
Horrifying
Poindexter Queue
Poindexter Queue 2 kun oldin
Deliberately creating superbacteria... what could go wrong?
martixy
martixy 2 kun oldin
SCIENCE!
RB 70
RB 70 2 kun oldin
At what point in the experiment did the E. Coli change into a different species of microorganism?
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 2 kun oldin
The E coli don't change into a different species. The population diverges and accumulates differences, and at some point people determine these differences sufficient to label the populations as separate species. Species is a human concept, and a human label. By an ecotype conception of microbial species, the Ara-3 strain should already be classified as a separate species. By a more conventional delimitation, not until the populations reach a 3% 16S divergence.
Sahnoune Khaled
Sahnoune Khaled 2 kun oldin
its adaptation not evolution
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 12 soat oldin
@Sahnoune Khaled "especillally by your statement about the definition of species" How do you think bacterial species are delimited? How do you think they SHOULD be delimited? Why?
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
@Sahnoune Khaled we don't yet have a theory on origins of life, afaik... just a bunch of hypotheses, such as 'abiogenesis' that young earth creationists love to think is the "aha gotcha science" moment for some reason.
Sahnoune Khaled
Sahnoune Khaled 17 soat oldin
@Crispr CAS9 you had to respect the other opinion im not convinced by your answers especillally by your statement about the definition of species even the scientific who made the experiment didn't pretend that..you dont monopolise the truth ...
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 21 soat oldin
@Sahnoune Khaled I said respond to what I said or don't respond at all. Your comment does nothing to address anything I said in my initial comment. Be serious or be silent.
Sahnoune Khaled
Sahnoune Khaled 21 soat oldin
@Crispr CAS9 alright youre 100 percent true and im 100 perpent..false...i only want a answer how the life started from dead matter in the first place..i need 100 % evidence not speculation and unproven theories
David Lee
David Lee 3 kun oldin
Ah a miniverse
Jean d'Arc
Jean d'Arc 3 kun oldin
So let me get this straight... you guys are evolving super hungry, super fast breeding bacteria that aren't fussy eaters :/
ranty13
ranty13 3 kun oldin
But after the equivalent of "1.5 million years" of evolution, they haven't really evolved. They are still E.coli, just better adapted E.coli. They still have the DNA of E.coli. They haven't evolved into worms or another organism. I would say this is evidence of adaptation, not evolution.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 2 kun oldin
"I would say this is evidence of adaptation, not evolution." Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "They haven't evolved into worms or another organism." If they evolved into worms or another organism, that would disprove evolution. Expecting as evidence for evolution something that would disprove evolution is a fairly clear demonstration that you don't understand what evolution is in the first place.
Climb High
Climb High 3 kun oldin
And everyone wonder how we get to the Fauci Ouchie and the bio-terrorism we going through now. Starts like this right here
Climb High
Climb High 3 soat oldin
@zhou sei calm down China Joe
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
it is my understanding that the side of the lab where they were messing around with coronaviruses from bats had nothing to do with the u.s. funding (which, btw, was signed off on by bush and obama and yes trump). is there good evidence that fauci was doing experiments on bat coronaviruses, or was overseeing that part of the lab?
Paul Doughty
Paul Doughty 4 kun oldin
This is cool to watch however a non-scientist here would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving. Meaning these bacteria didn’t grow a tail or change their physical attributes to become something else. The closest they came was that they introduced something new to their diet. A far cry from physical change. My kid decided to try mushrooms last week but he’s still my son. Definitely cool but not what I think defines evolution.
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
that's not how evolution works... you'd have to see what happens to your descendants over tens of thousands of generations. pokemon evolve like you are describing, we can't just eat a magic radioactive mushroom and suddenly grow a super useful arm out of our neck...
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 3 kun oldin
"would think that these bacteria are adapting not evolving" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.
Robert Cummins
Robert Cummins 4 kun oldin
Bounty? Really? Bizarre.
Taliesin River
Taliesin River 4 kun oldin
Promoting paper towels is pretty dumb. You're trying to make people afraid of doing something that was never dangerous with a very unscientific experiment, and promoting an unnecessary product that's bad for the environment. I'm disappointed that a science channel I respect would accept a sponsor like this.
Rin倫
Rin倫 4 kun oldin
So, is this theory can apply to viruses too? If so, people can estimate how frequently Covid-19 will change per generation in theory?
Kyle Mecca
Kyle Mecca 4 kun oldin
This is absolutely amazing, I am fascinated by evolution. I want to see more Also I'm surprised you advertised bounty. There is nothing wrong with a little bacteria and germaphobia is indicative of a disconnection with the earth. Let's reduce and reuse, not encourage waste due to neurotic fears.
Taliesin River
Taliesin River 4 kun oldin
yes, very disappointing. Especially his completely unscientific 'experiment' to prove why they're useful.
Marge N.
Marge N. 4 kun oldin
So this is what will actually kill us all?
relentlessmadman
relentlessmadman 5 kun oldin
I also use paper towels but I use the less expensive brands
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
@relentlessmadman there are brands that do recycled paper for their t.p. and toallas papel.
relentlessmadman
relentlessmadman 5 kun oldin
does any one make paper towels from hemp yet????
Danny Ramirez
Danny Ramirez 5 kun oldin
My question is would there ever be a singularity that would happen during the evolutionary process
Danny Ramirez
Danny Ramirez 10 soat oldin
@zhou sei no i mean genetically. Would there be a generic singularity
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
you mean like the mass of a black hole?
mark green
mark green 5 kun oldin
What a brilliant universe G-D Created, even a tiny bacterium is programed to evolve, WOW!!!
mark green
mark green 4 soat oldin
​@zhou sei Simple, where is the evidence that the London bridge was built by someone maybe it created itself? A creation is evidence on its creator, and the more complex and brilliance of the creation the more the evidence of a powerful creator.
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
where is there evidence of this god fella?
Rhianne Moll
Rhianne Moll 5 kun oldin
Eat E. coli, Jonathan Wells!
Арсенал
Арсенал 5 kun oldin
11:15 I got goosebumps here.
Rhadoo RootBwoy
Rhadoo RootBwoy 5 kun oldin
Sponsored by paper towels... How about you stop promoting non eco-friendly products?
Thom Of Hillbilly Haven
gloves??
Heinz Dontbother
Heinz Dontbother 5 kun oldin
@Veritasium, you might suggest the professor and his students to use mipar (mipar.us) to count those bacteria. Counting by hand is not necessary nowadays.
BP
BP 5 kun oldin
Could you try this with various antibiotics? seperated from each other in the same fashion ? Did you try bacteria from the Ganges river? I heated that there is a antibiotics plant dumping these batches of bacteria in the water…
Tom shiba
Tom shiba 6 kun oldin
would be funny if one day thes ebacteria became small animals with eyes
Terry Caldwell
Terry Caldwell 6 kun oldin
The smartest ad integration
chuck sch.
chuck sch. 6 kun oldin
Wow, this is real nice science, love it! Keep going with you works its really cool. :D
Matthew Salvatar
Matthew Salvatar 6 kun oldin
Wait, so if I get the ending there. Life shows a capacity to transcend entropy?
To Serve Man
To Serve Man 5 kun oldin
Define "Entropy." And nothing in the universe (flowing chain reactions) transcends the universe.
Danish
Danish 6 kun oldin
When did Adam Ragusea start doin science content ?
michaelsimkin
michaelsimkin 7 kun oldin
According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something. And this is what we do not see.
zhou sei
zhou sei 15 soat oldin
we cannot predict what will happen with any reliability; we know we came from a common ancestor as did a sheep or a bird, but there isn't some set endpoint to evolve into. ie, these e. coli might evolve into a multicellular organism given enough generations, but we can't know what it will be like at any given generation until we see it.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 6 kun oldin
"According to the evolution theory they were supposed to develop into a multicellular organism or something." So you're saying you don't know anything about evolutionary theory? Fun.
erikfinnegan
erikfinnegan 7 kun oldin
Veritasium FAKE for money: big experiment setup to pitch paper towels - microprint disclamer in the end says that experiment is "not representative". Not the the sort of statistical significance that I've grown used to wrt this channel. Oh, and you should always use recycled material or wash. There's always room for a couple kitchen cloths in the washer.
David Kellen
David Kellen 7 kun oldin
I'm really concerned about how they handle bacteria... No gloves, just a slight "Touch" in the fire and "importante" the material and bacteria are being exposed to Open air...
Tyray3P
Tyray3P 7 kun oldin
It's all well and good until the germs can transfer through xenonite
Cedric Velarde
Cedric Velarde 7 kun oldin
1st gen e coli: we cant eat that its deadly! 1000000+ gen e coli: u wut m8?!
A Real Life Dog
A Real Life Dog 7 kun oldin
Crematoriums are for organisms that are already dead... Those furnaces look more like something found at Dachau
МАТЬ-РОССИЯ
*how to create a supervirus*
gyamlj
gyamlj 7 kun oldin
This is a highly controlled environment. Compare the competitive advantage of the newest and oldest colonies in a natural world where innumerable other factors weigh in to survival. It may very well be that the older organisms are better able to survive. This is analogous to selective breeding that creates an animal with desired characteristics but is otherwise less capable of overall survival compared to its ancestors. I'm afraid this teaches me nothing.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 6 kun oldin
"I'm afraid this teaches me nothing." Says more about you than the experiment, I think.
Ashethorama
Ashethorama 8 kun oldin
Did anyone else notice the reference from the movie “The 13th Warrior” on the fridge? Timestamp 7:50 minute
Seven Ligthson
Seven Ligthson 8 kun oldin
YES! Nothing out is not in and everything out is in ;-)) 1.5 (oo.000) is human program given by life = love = what you are in need of, who (do you) are (you)? I took my ABO once more!
Christopher Inman
Christopher Inman 8 kun oldin
Queen Elizabeth I (of England) cooked a fruitcake for members of parliament to celebrate its opening. A bit was saved to be included in the next parliament's opening, etc. So now, when parliament begins its new season, the members are privileged to have a bit of cake cooked by Shakespeare's favorite monarch! [i have not fact-checked this because i don't want to find out if it is not true]
maruftim
maruftim 8 kun oldin
Mad scientist fell into bacteria gacha hell...
AJ T
AJ T 8 kun oldin
Is he referring to Confirmation Bias or is it something else?
ZedCactus
ZedCactus 8 kun oldin
This episode was great! Really interesting.
Lief Bamberg
Lief Bamberg 9 kun oldin
disappoinited that derek is now hawking that idea that greater bacterial spread is somehow dirtier, and that you should use disposible environment wrecking paper over washable cloths.
WowZers
WowZers 9 kun oldin
Imagine being the chad bacteria to first eat the citrate
Rodrigo Segura
Rodrigo Segura 9 kun oldin
42, ¿coincidence? I think not
Frenchnostalgique
Frenchnostalgique 9 kun oldin
Prof Richard Lenski has the same accent as Rich Evans and it's throwing me off.
Azurium
Azurium 9 kun oldin
Me seeing 1% selection first hand: "So that's what the aliens are doing to our universe and what the Great Filter could be."
Azurium
Azurium 9 kun oldin
Context: imagine that at 7:30 he's talking about intergalactic species expanding across the universe.
Christian412 America
The educated dumbasses still call it evolution. After 70000+ generations the bacteria is still producing bacteria. The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria. Why is it so hard to get un biased conclusions? The only thing that has been observed is ADAPTATION not evolution.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 9 kun oldin
"The educated dumbasses still call it evolution" Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is. "The bacteria has not produced anything but bacteria" If they produced something other than bacteria, it would disprove evolution. You understand that, right?
SuperSonic Boom
SuperSonic Boom 10 kun oldin
Nah, if the flask breaks we become the solution to the experiment.
Michael Kurek
Michael Kurek 10 kun oldin
It’s called mutation or adaptation. NOT EVOLUTION! The bacteria will always remain bacteria, just more resistant.
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 9 kun oldin
Evolution is the change in allele frequencies in a population over successive generations, which this definitely is.
Guy Fox
Guy Fox 10 kun oldin
IT'S GOD! LOL
Samaila Abdullahi
Samaila Abdullahi 10 kun oldin
I am forever grateful to Dr IGUDIA on UZblock who cured me from herpes with his herbal medication, you are so real and trusted.
RD2564
RD2564 10 kun oldin
Beautiful video. Biosciences are a rich hunting ground for new videos.
David Blank
David Blank 10 kun oldin
So...when do they turn into monkeys??? Can monkeys evolve into bacteria???
Crispr CAS9
Crispr CAS9 10 kun oldin
"So...when do they turn into monkeys" Based on evolutionary science, never. If you think evolution suggests otherwise, you don't understand evolution.
DeadEndFrog
DeadEndFrog 10 kun oldin
well don't judge the Qu when they do this to us :^)
lalit pal
lalit pal 11 kun oldin
I see you evolving from young youtuber :D
wildstar2424242424
wildstar2424242424 11 kun oldin
A million bacterial monkeys typing on a million bacterial type-writers.... One of them finally wrote the opening to hamlet
Mike Tacos
Mike Tacos 11 kun oldin
13:48 A couple more generations and they’ll be growing eyes and noses.
Mike Tacos
Mike Tacos 11 kun oldin
Then someone breaks the glass.
Chris Koll
Chris Koll 11 kun oldin
I'll bet you I can make a dog "evolve" so that it will CRAVE something that canines would NEVER consume if left to their own tastes(sp?)...
mwuaha
mwuaha 11 kun oldin
what?
Truther
Truther 12 kun oldin
Are tests like this being done on viruses?
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